Dissatisfaction with one’s own body is evident in many countries. For example, studies such as that conducted by Andrea Pelegrini and Edio Petroski in 2010, involving sample populations from 24 countries, have shown that such poor body image can cause people to radically alter their nutritional intake in an effort to address perceived problems. Sadly, this disaffection can begin in childhood, with the authors stating
A study comprising schoolchildren of secondary education in greater Florianópolis, SC, revealed that 48.2% of these schoolchildren were dissatisfied with their body weight
and “Body dissatisfaction is even observed among pre-adolescents”. The link between a positive body image and self-worth has been firmly established, such as in a publication by Hesketh et al.,(2004), which focused on obesity in adolescents.
Furthermore, a demonstrable causality between self-acceptance, self-esteem and satisfaction with life, has been shown in studies including Navarro et al., (2014), which confirmed that “The relation of personal self-esteem to life satisfaction was significant for both genders”. It is, therefore, reasonable to deduce that a positive body image is likely to predict a higher level of life satisfaction, or happiness. Research has found that wider experience of the naked form correlates to an improvement in body image, in both male and female subjects (Swami, 2015). While Swami’s study concerned participants in a life-drawing class, the principle has been shown to apply to those engaging in unclothed activities within a group, known as naturism.
- 1 Investigating the link between naturist activities and an improvement in life satisfaction levels
- 2 Applying the findings to real naturist activities
- 3 Implications of the research findings
As has been shown, the mediating effect of improved body image on self-esteem and of self-esteem on happiness has been widely observed. It is only recently that studies have directly targeted the links between naturism and contentment. K. J. West (2017) sought to observe the effects of naturism on positive body image, self-esteem and happiness, initially through comprehensive surveying and analysis and subsequently via real-life naturist activities.
The initial study: the effects of naturist activity on life satisfaction
West hypothesised that greater engagement in naturism would correlate with a higher level of general satisfaction. He recruited 849 British adults with a range of ages, ethnicity, sexuality and across the spectrum of gender. West presented them with a survey designed to ascertain ‘the effects of naturist activity on life satisfaction, mediated by improved body image and self-esteem’ (West, 2017). Without being specific about the survey’s aims, participants were questioned about whether or not they had experience of ‘clothes-free activities’. Discounting those that involve close family or a sexual partner; subsequent questions thoroughly assessed the individuals’ level of self-worth and required them to grade from 1 to 7, representing strongly disagree to strongly agree, statements regarding body image, such as:
- I respect my body
- I do not feel good about my body
- Despite its flaws, I accept my body for what it is
- On the whole, I am satisfied with myself
- I feel that I have a number of good qualities
- All in all, I am inclined to think that I am a failure
- In most ways, my life is close to ideal
- The conditions of my life are excellent
- I am satisfied with my life
Positive Body Image: Conclusions drawn from Study 1
West’s hypothesis was supported by the data.
The data demonstrated a correlation between active involvement in naturism and higher incidences of overall happiness.
This was mediated by a more positive body image and higher self-esteem. Analysis of the data suggests that the positive attitude to body image was not a determining factor in deciding to try naturism, yet rather a result of participating. There was also a reduced effect on improvement in satisfaction with increased involvement in naturist events.
Applying the findings to real naturist activities
The second study
With the core hypothesis supported, the natural progression was to test how it translated to real-life activities. West identified an opportunity in a pre-arranged nudist event, ‘Bare All For Polar Bears’. During this event 24 participants would be walking naked through Doncaster’s Yorkshire Wildlife Park. Having obtained permission, the subjects were given questionnaires, shortened versions of the survey in Study 1, to be completed before disrobing. The same questionnaire was presented to them immediately after the event, once they had dressed.
Conclusions drawn from Study 2
Quantitative differences between pre- and post-event scores indicated ‘positive psychological effects’, appearing to support West’s hypothesis. However, caution must be applied due to both the small sample size and the possibility that other aspects had caused this effect. For example, the charitable nature of the event. The positive correlation was not reversible. This means that subjects were not more likely to embrace nakedness because they were already body-confident.
The third study
For this element of the research, another pre-arranged event, ‘Waterworld’, was employed. 100 adults were to remain naked for three hours in a waterpark in Stoke-on-Trent; there was no requirement to take part in particular activities, merely to stay in the park. Again, the method was to administer the same pre- and post-event questionnaires as in Study 2. As established, satisfaction was shown to follow, rather than to predict, naturism.
Conclusions drawn from Study 3
Once again, clear evidence of a constructive effect on happiness, mediated by increased positive body image and higher self-esteem could be observed in the data extrapolated from the questionnaires. From this we can infer a correlation between naturism and satisfaction with one’s life. As in Study 1 and Study 2, the relationship between naturism and high self-esteem and happiness was not shown to be reversible.
Implications of the research findings
It’s a scientific truism that correlation does not prove causation. Yet it cannot be ruled out that the act of being naked around non-intimate acquaintances increases life satisfaction.
It would necessarily take place through a domino effect of nudity producing a positive body image. This would improve self-esteem and lead to greater happiness.
West’s observation that the effect of naturism on happiness decreased and involvement in such activities increased suggests that the greatest benefit would be experienced by the majority of the population, who have yet to try naturist socialising. The potential for a non-pharmaceutical approach to improving mental well-being is exciting for clinical practitioners, support organisations and for the individual.